Like anything mechanical, or electronic, clocks whether analog or digital require power and maintenance. First problem though is that time is not a constant, it is variable depending on many external influences, not least of which is the earth itself and the one up manship of the dominant civilization of the time. Our particular interest begins in 1675 with the establishment of Greewich Meantime on the southern bank of the river Thames, London. There has been a palace on the site since William the Conqueror in 1066, Henry VIII and his daughters, Elizabeth, and Mary were born and lived there for some time. Interestingly it was King Charles II who approved the establishment of the meridian and the National Astronomical Observatory.
Since then, the Meridian has been used internationally as the longitudinal marker for navigation worldwide based on astronomical data taken at midnight, weather permitting of course. As other nations and civilizations came to the fore, they made their own navigational methods, but it was quickly found that there could be only one so GMT (renamed UTC – Coordinated Universal Time) still holds the zero/360 longitude worldwide.
Who hasn’t heard the phrase, “time just fly’s by?” Mainly from adults and seniors in particular, but that is just part of the illusion. Children, from very young, have no conception of yesterday and tomorrow, they only know today – as it should be, but then when parents tell their little ones “no, perhaps tomorrow” they wonder why the child gets irritable and grumpy.
Astronomy was morphing to cosmology with the advent of bigger and better telescopes, but where the 24 hour day came from is still a bit of a mystery, the general belief is it was the Egytians. Measuring the lapse of time between sunsets is a beginning, but the 24 hours is based on the diameter of the earth and its speed of rotation, 1,000 miles per hour, hence a full rotation is 24 hours – or thereabouts. The problem is that the earth breaths, swells, and contracts depending on gravitational and other external forces. At the moment (2022) the earth’s diameter is around 23, 876 miles, leaving a day 23 minutes short, but again, this is variable and is such a small percentage that it is generally ignored. Then again there’s the big chunk of time allocated so that every 4 years we get an extra day. But more about this fiasco later.
Now, hands up anyone who picked up on “the earth breaths” in the prior paragraph and cocked an eyebrow? [Probably while thinking, ‘who is this nutter’]
I intend to get into this subject much later, but for now let’s just go with water (h2O) being not only alive, but intelligent. There have been many scientific papers on the subject of water being subject to thoughts and emotions resulting in crystal formations like snowflakes and that water can transmit DNA data to purify other contaminated water and can transmit information to reveal its environment, location, flow and behavior. You can Google this as a subject, or by individuals such as Jaque Benvonito [www.universemadeyou.com]; Luc Montanier who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on this subject; Martin Chaplain; Mosary Emuto; Bernard Koplin; Schalburger (aka The water Wizard) and many more. Now there is a condition. It’s in the small print – the water has to come from unblemished spring water, straight out of the earth, not from rain, seas or oceans. Now you have to make a judgment call, the fact that the earth and the waters within are alive and intelligent is not well presented for much the same reason as the authorities staying mum on aliens, planetary collisions and asteroid impacts. If it helps, if you follow the bible and other ancient texts, you will know that the earth had oceans and land mass, but no rainfall until 5,000 BCE. So what did they drink prior to Noah’s flood or the Great Deluge as recorded by Mesopotamia and other long gone civilizations.
Read the Bible again, just Chapter 1 Creation. It was many years after my conversion that I realised what I am telling you now. God created the Heavens, the Earth and everything thereon, but nowhere does it say He created water apart from oceans and seas.
International Atomic Time (TAI)
TAI was developed in an attempt to coordinate 450 atomic clocks spread around the world. It is a continuous time scale which ignores the principle of ‘leap seconds’ and is the foundation of UTC. The majority of the atomic clocks are based on caesium which has a very stable decay rate making it extremely reliable, but the clock is still affected by the slowing of the earths rotation and the regular movement of the magnetic north pole back and forth between Canada and Sibera.
In July 1955 the use of AM and PM was established and put into formal use world wide, however, there were a number of issues which caused some concern and in 1970’s it was discovered that the clocks around the world were ticking at different rates. The original atomic clock in the UK was based at sea level, whereas the clock in the USA was based in the observatory at Boulder, Colorado. these two clocks varied by 2 seconds every year and the clock in the USA has to be altered accordingly. This raised the issue of ‘gravitational time dilation’ which we won’t get into here save to say that gravity has an effect on time as predicted by Albert Einstein in his Theory of Relativity. However, it becomes important when we take time (earth time) into outer space.
(Not to scale)
The discussion on time moves on to the section “Space and Time”